KXDW4W Empty cockpit of autonomous car, HUD(Head Up Display) and digital speedometer. self-driving vehicle.


Image of car front seats and dashboard (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


1. The Clutch Pedal

2. The Foot Brake Pedal

3. The Accelerator Pedal

4. The Gear Level

5. The Hand Brake

6. The Steering Wheel


It disconnects the engines from the wheel without killing the engine.

Diagram of clutch pedal, foot-brake pedal and accelerator pedal respectively (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


1. The foot brake stops the car from moving. The brake should be applied when you intend to slow down or stop the vehicle completely.

2. The clutch pedal is the pedal on the left and operated left foot. It is used to move the car, to stop the car without stalling the engine and to change gear.

For a smooth stop, you should fully depress the clutch before applying the brake. The foot brake is the nearest right pedal to the clutch pedal and it is operated with the right feet.

Diagram of clutch pedal, foot-brake pedal and accelerator pedal respectively (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The accelerator is the speed regulator. Moving the vehicle after it has been started and increasing or decreasing the speed as desired is done with the accelerator pedal. It is the right pedal to the brake pedal and is operated with the right foot.

Diagram of clutch pedal, foot-brake pedal and accelerator pedal respectively (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)

This lady is stepping her foot on the brake pedal (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The gear lever works with the speed of the engine in a way that the power produced by the engine can be changed to suit different conditions. Floor-mounted gear lever with six positions is most common. The gear positions are always indicated on the gear lever. There are four forward gears, one reverse and a neutral. Gear position one to four (at times five) are the same in almost all cars, the reverse gear may be in various positions.

Remember that before starting the engine, you must ensure that the gear lever is in neutral position. Otherwise, the car will jerk as soon as you turn on the starter.

These are images of gear in vehicles (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The handbrake prevents the vehicle from rolling any further after it has been parked or in a momentary stop as in traffic jams, it is like a safety device. You engage the handbrake when the vehicle is not in motion and disengaged before setting the vehicle in motion except during brake failure.

Image of handbrake (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


Is used to steer a vehicle into either the leftward or rightward positions. You must handle the steering wheel firmly with both hands. The recommended ways of handling the steering wheel is by placing your left hand at 10 and the right hand at 2, a position commonly referred to as “ten to two” and the clock hand position of 15 minutes before 3:00 O’ clock I.e the right hand at 3 while the left hand is at 9; a position commonly referred to as a “quarter to three”. You should be able to move your hand freely around the steering wheel. You should have a slight bend in your elbows if you place both hands on top of the steering wheel. If you have to stretch or are too close, you can change that angle of the back-rest. When the vehicle is in motion, you can determine the direction it goes by steering the wheel to the direction you wish. You must be in perfect control of the steering process and always focus on the direction the vehicle is facing.

Image for steering (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


1. Check the oil, the radiator water, the brake oil, the fuel gauge and the tyres of your car.

2. Your seat needs to be in a position that allows you to reach the foot pedals easily. Push the clutch pedal to the floor and adjust the seat so that you are not stretching for it but have a slight bend in the knee when it is pressed to the floor. Your knee should not hit the steering wheel. You can lower the seat and some cars have steering wheel height adjustments. The head restraint minimizes impacts in accidents if the top of the head restraint is roughly in line with the top of your ears.

3. It is a legal requirement for you and your passengers to always wear your seat-belt. You are legally responsible for anyone under the age of 18 and must make them wear their seat-belts.

4. You should have three mirrors on your car. The interior one should be adjusted so that you can see as much of the rear windscreen and the road behind you without moving your head. The door mirrors should show a sliver of the car down the edge of the mirror and be

positioned so you can see as far down the road as possible. They should not point upward at the sky nor down at the road. Remember to check your mirrors before starting your car.

5. Make sure your doors are properly closed

6. Make sure the gear lever is in the neutral position. Engage the hand brake to prevent the vehicle from rolling.

Now you can start your vehicle

7. Insert the key into the hole which most often is located within the region of the steering wheel and turn it clockwise until it goes to the “ON” position.

(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)

You will notice that two or more red lights will show on the speedometer located on the dashboard, the oil light and the battery light. Others are the handbrake and the door lights. Meanwhile, continue to turn the key clockwise to the end which is the “START” position and the engine will start. If it fails to start, repeat the process again and again and it starts if the engine and the battery are in good condition

8. When it starts, allow time for the vehicle to steam until the lights go off. If it is the first start of the day, the engine must be allowed to run for some minutes to enable the engine and battery charge properly. Next is to press the accelerator to allow the engine warm better.


The engine oil light indicates after starting the car and goes off when the oil has circulated to various parts of the engine. A driver is not expected to accelerate until the engine light trips off. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


Image for battery warning (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)

This functional pilot light immediately goes out again after you have started the car.


The Brake light provides information about the brake system and goes out when the handbrake is properly disengaged. If it persists after it has been disengaged, call your mechanic.

(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The fuel gauge provides information about the level of fuel in the fuel tank (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


This provides safety for the driver and the occupants and the light goes off when the belt is used. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The temperature meter indicates the level of the heat on the engine and indicates when the vehicle is overheating. A good driver is expected to observe always. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The brake light is used to alert the vehicle behind that you are slowing down or stopping completely. It is red (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The reverse light illuminates the rear to give you a better view at night during reversing. Like the brake light, it is connected to the reverse gear and functions only when the reverse gear is engaged. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The parking light is used particularly at night when a vehicle is parked momentarily to draw attention to it is that nobody runs into it. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


This is a warning device that enables the driver to warn other road users of impending danger. It should be used when you are overtaking, approaching or coming out of a blind curve or corner when ascending a hill to alert on-coming vehicles especially when the driver does not have a good front view. The horn should not be indiscriminately used. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


These are used to point out the direction a vehicle intends to go, either left, right or of a change from one lane to another. Trafficators are in the front sides and rear sides of a vehicle. Trafficator lights should be flashed in good time. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


These are used to keep the wind-screens clean therefore helping the driver to have a good view of the road. It is mainly used to wipe rainwater and dirt from the windscreen. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


high angle view of a businessman sitting in a car holding the steering wheel (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)

These are devices designed to hold the occupants of the vehicle to their seats. Seat belts when used, prevents the driver from hitting his/her chest on the steering wheel and

also prevents the occupants from being thrown out of the vehicle in the event of a serious accident.

(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)

Seat belts must be worn at all times. Most injuries sustained from collisions could have been avoided if the occupants of such vehicles wore their seat belts properly tight I.e neither too tight nor too slack which is dangerous.


These help you drive safely in darkness and it also acts as a warning sign to other road users that a vehicle is on the road and they must be kept in good condition always. (Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


The speedometer tells you your speed at all times, therefore, acting as a check on you(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


Once you make sure that all red (alert) lights have gone off except the handbrake light which should still be on. Take time and care to fasten your seat belt. Already, it is assumed that the gear lever is on a Neutral position. Do the following to achieve a smooth take-off/drive:

1. Depress the clutch

2. Move the gear lever from a neutral position to gear one

3. Give gentle acceleration by pressing the accelerator lightly

4. Release the clutch gradually

5. Disengage the hand brake

6. Allow the clutch pedal to come up the more and keep on pressing the accelerator and the vehicle will start moving gradually.

Once the car starts moving and the clutch pedal has been fully released, you can apply a gentle but firmer squeeze on the accelerator so that the vehicle picks up speed. At this point, you can change to gear two and press the accelerator firmer to smoothen the movement of the vehicle.


Increasing the speed of a vehicle is encouraged only if the road is clear and smooth. It is advisable to use the lower gear on built-up or traffic-jammed areas. Higher gears can be used on the highways or expressways. Increasing and decreasing the speed of a vehicle requires the accurate changing of gear in ascending order thus; 1,2,3,4 and to 5 and exerting greater pressure on the accelerator.

If the vehicle has an automatic transmission, the gearbox will change down as far as necessary for maximum acceleration from the speed you were doing. Each gear is held to its maximum speed before automatically changing up to the next until you relax the accelerator. As soon as the accelerator is relaxed, the gear changes directly into top position. The gears change down by themselves in reverse order when you slow down by gently pressing the foot brake.

Always depress the clutch before changing gears if the vehicle has a manual transmission. Recognize the positions of the engine before the change of gear. It is the sound of the engine that will tell you when to change to another gear position.


A. Release the accelerator and gradually apply the foot brake

B. Depress the clutch totally and at the same time increasing pressure on the foot brake to slow down the vehicle.

C. Release brake slightly near the end of the slow down period so that the vehicle will stop smoothly.

D. With your foot still on the clutch, move the gear lever to a neutral position.

E. Release the clutch pedal completely

F. Pull the hand brake and release foot brake completely


You should always make sure that there is enough space behind the vehicle before reversing and you should have a clear view of the space to avoid running into any object.

To reverse a vehicle, the steps are the same but this time, the gear lever is moved to the reverse position with the aid of the clutch pedal and you must turn your body to the right with your right arm on top of the front seat and your left hand should be placed on the steering wheel in the “12 O’ clock” position. With this posture, you will be able to have a fair view of the back and make accurate distance judgement.

Be sure to stay watchful as you reverse, take glances to the front several times to make sure the front corner of your vehicle is not about to hit or scratch another object and if possible, identify a landmark to use as a guide. Be sure that the front wheels are straight before you begin to reverse and turn the steering approximately to the direction you want to go. Make turning movements and the speed of the car slow because turning the steering too fast often causes loss of control.

Never reverse from a side road into a major road.


Vehicles with automatic gear system vary from those with a manual gear system. The basic differences are:

(i) In an automatic transmission, the gears automatically change depending on the rate of acceleration of the vehicle; but in vehicles with a manual gear system, the gear positions are changed manually by the driver.

(ii) In an automatic transmission, there is no clutch pedal unlike in manual gear system i.e. there are only two pedals in automatic transmission vehicles and the gear selector for automatic transmission has Neutral, Park, Reverse and normal “Drive” positions.

(iii) The engine will only start in “Neutral” or “Park” positions for safety. This prevents the vehicle from lurching forward when the engine is started and the vehicle is moved most of the time on “Drive” position


Some automatic gears could have one or more lock-up gear positions. These lock-up gear positions are primarily meant for drivers who want to hold gears manually at times. In lock-up positions, the vehicle will not exceed the maximum speed of a particular gear until the driver manually changes to the next lock-up position.

In lock-up position, the vehicle starts in the 1st gear and remains locked-up in that position until you select “Drive” position. After the selection, the engine changes to the next gear unless the speed and loading are still appropriate to the gear and if speed drops while the vehicle is in lock two, lock one engages automatically but as a soon as speed rises, it returns to lock two again. The gearbox is still making automatic changes but only as far up as the two levels also if you start the vehicle in lock two, you will find the vehicle move off in 1st lock automatically. The working is similar if a lock three is provided on a four geared automatic.

As well as holding a gear for maximum acceleration for example when overtaking. The lock-up mechanism is also designed for maximum engine braking as when descending steep hills.


It stands for Park position and in this position, the engine is on neutral I.e mechanically locked against movement.

1. You can start the engine in park position.

2. You should use this position whenever you park so that the engine’s resistance holds the vehicle, as well as the hand brake. This is vital if the car is parked on a hill.

3. The park position should not be selected while the vehicle is in motion; otherwise, it will damage the engine.



It stands for neutral.

1. This position should be used during any long wait in traffic jams.

2. This is the standard position for starting the engine.

3. If you are stoping for a few seconds, you can leave the gear in “Drive” position while you hold the foot brake on but for a longer stop, use the neutral position and engage the hand brake.



Follow the same procedure for moving the vehicle. If the hill is steep, do not disengage the hand brake until you apply a little acceleration. If you did not engage the hand brake, a quick switch of your foot from foot brake to the accelerator will get you moving and if you have parked on a hill, the car may have moved slightly downhill against the hand brake so that the mechanical engine lock panel has become tightly gripped in the transmission. When this happens, it may be a little difficult to free the selector level from the “park” position. Move the selector to “Drive” forcefully; you will not damage the vehicle.


With the engine running go straight from the 1st gear to reverse and back without any stop in-between (don’t press the accelerator to avoid damage to the transmission).


Cars with automatic transmissions cannot be pushed to start and in some models, you must not tow the vehicle without lifting the driving wheels off the ground


Make sure that the road ahead is clear and that no one is coming behind you, use the trafficator then horn to alert the driver in front. Many accidents are caused by bad judgement during overtaking.


1. The instructor must have 5 years of driving experience.

2. A good instructor must be friendly with students

3. An instructor must be 25 years and above.

4. He must be certified by FRSC after rigorous training.

5. He must have a valid driving license

6. A good instructor must encourage his/her student irrespective of poor performances during or after training and would expect you to use all the controls smoothly and correctly and also understand the functions and names of ancillary controls

The examiner will also be looking to see that you:

1. Balance the accelerator and clutch to move away smoothly.

2. Hold the steering wheel at either the ten – two or quarter to 3 position

3. Steer at the correct time and smoothly

4. Understand the minor controls such as light, indicators, windscreen wipers and de-misters

5. Accelerate smooth.

6. Choose the right gear and change in good time before a hazard

7. Brake gently and in good time

8. Know-how and when to apply the hand brake.

9. Avoid stalling the car

10. Know the meaning of displays on the instrument panel such as warning lights and speedometer.


1. When driving, you must be focused, mentally alert and have a full view of the road and traffic ahead

2. When driving, you must give pedestrians the right of way when an amber light is flashing on the controlled crossing.

3. When driving, you must observe all speed limits and highway codes.

4. When driving, you must obey all traffic signs and the direction of a traffic officer on duty

5. When driving, you must put on the front light, side light and tail lamps at night

6. When driving, you must not park on Zebra crossings

7. When driving, you must keep a safe distance between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead of you by having a good view of the rear tyres of the vehicle ahead of you

8. Do not overtake on a narrow bridge

9. Don’t talk on a cell phone while driving

10. When driving, you must give way to traffic on your left at roundabouts.

11. Every time that you re-fuel, check your oil and other fluid levels. Look for noticeable leaks throughout the engine compartment.

12. Develop a sixth-sense to alert you of vehicles ahead, behind, coming from your right and left, pedestrians, other road users and unexpected dangers.

13. When travelling on a multiple lane road, keep in mind that the left of most lanes are for passing only. If not actively passing a vehicle, stay in the right lanes, allowing others to pass. When a light turns green, look left, then right, straight ahead, then left again before proceeding through the light.

14. Notice all vehicle and ensure that someone else is not going to run the light.

15. Notice what is happening on the sides of the road and check behind you through every 6-8 seconds when driving on a two-lane road that allows parking on the right, stay toward the centre line to give room if someone were to open the door of their car. This fore-thought will prevent you from swerving to an opening door. If there is no parking is allowed on the road, position your car toward the right to allow for more room between you and an oncoming vehicle.

16. Expect other drivers to make mistakes and think of what you would do if a mistake does happen. For example, do not assume that a vehicle coming to a stop sign is going to stop. Be ready to react if it does not stop.

17. Never cause an accident on purpose, even if a pedestrian or another vehicle fails to give you the right of way.

18. When travelling behind other vehicles, there should be at least a 4-second space between your vehicles. When the car in front of you passes a stationary object, slowly count to yourself. If you pass the object before the allotted time, you should back off. When travelling at night or inclement weather, these times should be doubled.

19. When being approached by an emergency vehicle, pull to the right side of the road and STOP. Put on your hazard lights to allow others to see you better.

20. Carry in your vehicle and in an easy to find place, all contact numbers that you may need, as well as emergency contact information and if possible your medical history.

21. Leave early, plan to arrive 10 minutes before the appointed time. Speeding does not increase your ability to arrive on time rather it only increases your chances of accidents.

22. Avoid the “N Zone” with trucks or buses, they cannot see you from many areas. Remember if you cannot see the driver in the truck’s rearview mirrors, they cannot see you.

Also remember that trucks make large right turns.

23. In inclement weather, it is necessary to reduce one’s speed, the brake should be applied slowly without making sudden moves.

24. When making sudden moves, it’s much easier to lose control of your vehicle. Remember as your speed increases so does your braking distance. If you double your speed, you quadruple your braking distance. If you’re double the speed of your vehicle, you double the stopping distance. You should always consider road conditions when driving

25. You should never overtake another vehicle on a hill

26. You should not contemplate overtaking a vehicle on a curve, a cut, when approaching a narrow bridge, or a narrow road

27. You should slow down when approaching corners

28. You should not stop in the middle of the road

29. You should pull out of the road to change a flat tyre. You should avoid constant use of brake when descending a steep hill

30. You should avoid road rage.

31. You should dim his headlamps when passing other on-coming vehicles especially at night

32. You should not drive recklessly at a speed or in a manner that will endanger other people’s lives and properties

33. You should not drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs

34. You should not drive a vehicle that emits flames or smokes excessively

35. You should not drive an excessively noisy vehicle

36. During heavy rainfall and your visibility becomes poor, it is better to find a safe place and park until it is safe to continue driving the journey

37. You should not sound the horn at night in a built-up area except in an emergency

38. You should not allow passengers alight from the vehicle when in motion.

39. You should not use an expressway when you are a learner

40. You should not reverse on the expressway

41. During rainfall, you should reduce your speed so that you have a good control of the vehicle.

42. During rainfall, you should put on your side lights to alert other road users but if the rainfall is heavy, it is better you put on your headlamps

43. During rainfall, you should drive with utmost care because roads will be slippery and the brake at these times does not give the desired result

44. The driving is duly and properly licensed.

45. All the vehicle parts: windscreens, mirrors, seatbelts, wipers, tyres, brakes, headlamps etc are in good condition.
46. The luggage in your vehicle is properly labeled, documented and legal.

47. You must possess a valid learner’s permit (if you are a learner) and letter “L” must be in front and back of the vehicle. No passenger should be allowed in the vehicle.

48. You have an up-to-date road worthiness certificate of the vehicle.

49. Accidents happen just in seconds.

50. Look at your side mirror to be sure that the road is free before driving into the road.

51. Never overload your vehicle because it puts excess pressure on your tires

52. Do not leave your vehicle in the middle of the road, a bridge or corner if it breaks down and if you will, use proper and sufficient warning signs like” Caution” and remember to clear all sticks, and other danger signs from the road after you have removed your vehicle.

53. You must stop on a zebra crossing to give pedestrians right of way and you must not go past a vehicle that stopped on a zebra crossing.

54. If you approach a stop line, you must stop behind the stop line and not on it or after it.

55. You must always stop at an intersection when joining a major road.

56. You must drive to avoid danger.

57. Stay alert and look out for trouble spots ahead of you

58. A defensive driver should be able to predict, recognize hazards and act accordingly to prevent accidents.

59. You must always maintain a speed that will enable you control the vehicle effectively.

60. Always keep to your side of the road

61. Even when you have right of way, you must not insist on it if it will cause an accident

62. Overtake only on the left hand side

63. The vehicle and any other object it may tow is in a condition or position that it is unlikely to endanger your life or that of any other person.

64. Reduce your speed when approaching bends and corners areas.

65. Do not make U-turn where road-signs forbid you to do so like near the crest of a hill, on a sharp bend, in the face of on-coming vehicles or doing so will constitute danger to other road users.

66. Free-wheeling reduces control over a vehicle and it is very dangerous therefore do not switch -off you ignition in order to save fuel

67. Do not drive at night without functional front and rear lights on both sides of the vehicle.

68. Always service your vehicle regularly

69. Make sure you are good health before driving and the moment you feel drowsy, park your vehicle to avoid accident.

70. Remember, if you drink, don’t drive and if you drive, don’t drink. Drinking impairs your vision and actions.

71. Yield or give way means allow traffic on the priority road to pass before you merge/join the stream

72. Speed limit means the operating speed that your vehicle should not expect or go beyond when driving.

73. Bend/curve sign means that the road is bent and that you should reduce your speed at the bend/curve.

74. Do not overtake other vehicles at corners, bends, curves, where single or double solid white lines or pavements are marked, intersections, junctions, police checks-points unless otherwise directed or astraight road when the approaching vehicle is too close.

75. You should always bear in mind that trafficator or light flashing is not a permission to enter the road immediately; wait until the oncoming vehicle or traffic situation permits you to do so.

76. Always drive with a relaxed mind as this is one of the ways to help you to be in better control of the vehicle.

77. Always remember that many years of experience on the steering does not guarantee perfection; avoid over confidence.

78. Be sure you have a legitimate driver’s license. Do not get one through the back door.

79. Timely decision of where one is branching off is very essential. Sudden change of lane always obstructs and leads to traffic problems.

80. Avoid using fuse made out of naked wire, failure to comply may lead to fire risk. If a vehicle behind warns you that he is about to overtake, always give indication whether the road ahead is clear or not. Your failure to do so may result in an accident.

81. Don’t overtake on a hill, curve, corners

82. Constant use of brakes when going down a hill causes the brakes to be very hot affecting the brake lining.

83. Use a lower gear when going down a steep hill, it allows the engine to do the braking therefore making the vehicle easier to control and the efficiency of the brake increased.

84. Dim your head light when passing another vehicle. A driver cannot see the road ahead at night if he/she is blinded by the rays of the light.

85. A thumping sound may be the warning of blowout. If this happens, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and keep a firm grasp on the steering wheel and pull safely to the roadway and check your tyres. Do not brake suddenly.

86. React as if you would with a blowout. Ease off the accelerator pedal and pull off the roadway.

87. If you suddenly have no control of the steering wheel, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal, turn on your emergency flashers and allow your vehicle to come to a slow stop. Brake very gentle to prevent your vehicle from spinning.

88. Keep windows clear and transparent. Avoid tinting, stick on toys, light shades, dangling fuzzy cubes and it’s like

89. Use your turn signals in heavy fog

90. Switch on hazard warning lights in situations necessary to alert other drivers to slow down and take extra care, e.g at the scene of an accident

91. Keep the space on either side of your car free

92. Drive in the outer lane on freeway. In case of a problem, you won’t have to cross lane of traffic to get to the breakdown lane

93. Keep wheels straight when waiting to turn across oncoming traffic, if your car is rear-ended, it won’t be pushed into the opposite lane

94. Do not drive next to large vehicles longer than necessary because the driver may not see you, and a turning truck can suddenly cut off exit routes

95. Change lanes or pull over if tailgated and if that is not possible, slow down, and/ or maintain extra distance to the car in front, to allow for both yourself and the tailgate to stop safely.

96. Avoid drivers who are speeding, running red lights and stop signs, tailgating, passing on the shoulder of the road, cutting off other vehicles, slamming on brakes in front of a tailgater, makes improper hand or facial gestures at other drivers, is yelling and is repeatedly honking the horn and flashing headlights.

97. You should avoid a visibly damaged or defective car because a history of accidents indicates that the driver has poor driving skills

98. Cars that weave, do not stay in lane, or brake too late at intersections may be driven by intoxicated or distracted drivers and should be avoided.

99. Never drive over an object on the road that can be safely avoided, it may conceal objects that can damage your vehicle.

100. Be patient and courteous

101. Don’t make eye contact with aggressive drivers

102. Keep your doors locked and your windows up

103. Do not underestimate the other driver’s potential for aggression

104. Do not drive when angry, overtired, or upset

105. Allow extra time to get to your destination

106. When possible, change your shedule to avoid congestion

107. Listen to relaxing music or books or tape

108. Give other drivers the benefit of doubt. All drivers make mistakes

109. Avoid all conflict, even if you are right

110. Plan ahead for the unexpected.

111. If you cannot avoid a crash, remain calm and try to choose the least dangerous option.

112. Driving too fast or too slowly may create a dangerous situation

113. Regardless of the posted speed limit, weather and traffic conditions may make it necessary to drive more slowly. However, driving too slowly can also be dangerous. Your speed should be adjusted for the conditions and match the flow of traffic,as long as it does not surpass the maximum posted speed.

114. The ability to stop your car safely should be considered when deciding your speed and you should consider how quickly you can react physically and mentally, the type and condition of the roadway (It will be more difficult and takes longer to stop on wet asphalt), he kind of tyres you are using and the conditions of their tread (Large, wide tyres with good tread will stop a vehicle faster than small, narrow tyre with little tread), the type, condition and adjustment of your brakes, the direction and speed of the wind (A strong tail wind can make it very difficult to stop quickly), vehicle design, weight distribution, suspension and shock absorbers.

(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)

115. Crashes involving vehicles and trains can be prevented. Approaching and crossing rail tracks require drivers to take extreme caution.

116. A round railroad advance warning sign means a crossing is ahead.

117. In front of the railroad crossing, the pavement is marked with a large X and two R’s.

118. A solid yellow line means you may not pass another vehicle as you near the tracks

119. Flashing lights always mean a train is nea, always stop when the lights begin to flash.

120. Some crossings also have gates, always stop when the gates begin to lower. It is against the law to drive through, around or under the gates.

121. When crossing a railroad track, be especially careful! Drive as though you expect a train on any track at any time.

122. More than one train may be on the tracks. After one train has passed, always look for a second train on another track before proceeding.

123. Sometimes you may be moving with a stream of vehicles across a railroad track. Check carefully to make sure there is enough room for your vehicle on the other side of the track there is not enough room, do not cross the tracks.

124. If your vehicle has a manual transmission, shift down before reaching the tracks. Avoid stalling you should not change gears while crossing the track

125. Never race a train to a crossing.

126. Remember, crashes involving trains and vehicles are usually caused by carelessness. Always stop, look and listen for trains. Extra safety consciousness may save your life.

127. One of the greatest hazards of roadway driving is drowsiness or highway hypnosis. Lack of sleep or fatigue impact your ability to safely drive your vehicle. When taking a long trip, avoid drowsiness by stopping frequently to drink coffee, exercise or nap. Exercise your eyes by reading road signs or shifting the focus of your eyes to different parts of the roadway. Make sure you are properly rested.

128. Lights must be dimmed before meeting an oncoming vehicle or before passing a vehicle

129. If street lights cause a lot of glare, you should dim your dashboard lights and use your sun vision and you should also avoid using any other light inside your vehicle.

130. Roadway signs are more difficult to see at night

131. Use edge lines and centre lines of the roadway as guides.

132. Do not stop on the roadway. If you must stop, use a warning light.

133. Crashes often happen when equipment fails. Your most important aid is to remain calm.

134. When entering an expressway, you will usually find a speed change lane. This allows you to gain the speed necessary before merging. You should signal and look for an opening in the traffic, match traffic speed and merge with traffic when safe.

135. When getting off expressways, exits may be on the right or left and be sure to be in the correct exit and speed-change lane. Signal your intent, then slow down to make your exit in the speed change lane.

136. Check your rearview and side mirrors before changing lanes

137. Use your turn signal when making lane changes.

138. Go on the next exit if you missed yours. Backing up on expressways is against the law.

139. The right lane is for slower traffic. The left lane is used for faster traffic and for passing.

140. Do not stop abruptly on the expressway, you should pull off the road with caution if you have a problem.

141. Night driving is difficult because things may appear different than in daylight and glare from lights may interfere with your vision.

142. Do not brake suddenly as this may cause skidding or locked wheels.

143. Never drive over the centerline.

144. When a vehicle is approaching head-on in your lane, slow down immediately. Pullover to the right and sound your horn.

145. Skidding occurs when tyres lose traction. If you skid, ease off the accelerator pedal or brakes. Steer into the direction of the skid until you feel you have regained traction and then straighten your vehicle.

146. If your wheels drift off the pavement onto the shoulder, grip the wheel firmly, ease your foot off the accelerator pedal and brake gently. After checking for traffic behind you, gently steer back onto the pavement. Do not jerk your wheel to correct your steering. This may cause you to drive into oncoming traffic.

147. Carbon monoxide is a deadly poison. Symptoms of carbon monoxide are weariness, yawning, dizziness, nausea, headache and ringing in the ears. You can prevent carbon monoxide poisoning by having your exhaust system checked regularly. Also, leave the window partially open when starting the engine, while driving the vehicle or when running the engine while parked. Never run the engine in your garage.


The reasons include resting your foot on the clutch pedal, jerky acceleration and lack of co-ordination.


The reasons include not changing gear at the right time, using the wrong gear for speed and conditions and coasting.


The reason includes harsh use. Late braking is not a failure unless it happens every time.


Using it to stop, leaving it on when travelling and not using the ratchet button- this is more an irritation than a driving fault.



Position of hands is not rigidly enforced in these enlightened days, but if you are tying your arms I.e. crossing your hands over each other in knots will fail.

(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


Defensive driving also known as advanced driving is a more advanced form of training that motor vehicle drivers can take to master the rules of the road and the basic mechanics of driving. It aims to reduce the risk of driving by pro-actively avoiding dangerous situations despite adverse conditions and/or the incorrect actions of others.


Aggressive driving is the operation of a motor vehicle in a manner that endangers or is likely to endanger persons or property.


If your brake pedal suddenly sinks to the floor, you should pump it to build pressure. If that does not work, use your emergency or parking brake and to slow down, you should shift your vehicle into a lower gear.

If your headlights fail suddenly, you should try your emergency flashers, parking lights and turn on your signals, pull off the road and seek for help.

If your lights begin to dim, you should drive to a service station or pull off the road and seek help.

If your vision becomes blocked, roll down the side window to see. Turn on your emergency flashers and then pull your vehicle off the road.


If you suddenly notice a fire or smoke in the engine of a vehicle while driving, you should release your foot from the accelerator gently and pull off the road.

Open the bonnet carefully at no risk to yourself and with fire extinguisher, extinguish the fire. If you notice that the damage to the engine of the vehicle is so much that it cannot be rectified immediately, tow the vehicle to a specialist for a proper check.


1. Two types of driver’s license are Professional and Private.

2. No person under the age of 18 years is permitted by law to either own a driving license or to drive a vehicle.

3. It is an offence to drive a motor vehicle on a highway unless you are licensed to do so.

4. It is an offence to drive a vehicle that does not correspond to the class of vehicle you are licensed to drive in respect of which a learner’s permit is held.

5. It is an offence to use a driving license or learner’s permit belong to another person.

6. It is an offence to drive an unregistered or unlicensed vehicle.

7. A learner who has a learner’s permit can only drive on a highway when accompanied by an instructor sitting beside him.


There are several traffic offences which are punishable under the Nigeria Law and it is not possible to reproduce all the traffic offences, below are some of the offences which you must know and avoid:

1. Driving under the influence of alcohol

2. Driving vehicle without headlight or one headlight

3. Failing to change ownershNot wearing seat belt

4. Overtaking on the right side


(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


5. Answering your phone while driving

6. Overtaking traffic in a corner

7. Disobedience of traffic signs

8. Failure to keep to your side of the road (Right side)

9. Failure to carry jacks and tools


(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


10. Using vehicle license of another vehicle.

11. Using driving licence of another person.

12. Learner driving without learner “L”

13. Learner driving unaccompanied by a licenced driver

14. Overloading your vehicle


(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


15. Using vehicle contrary to purpose licenced

16. Failure to produce a driving license on demand

17. Driving an unregistered vehicle.

18. Plying the wrong route.

19. Driving on excessive speed
20. Reckless driving

21. Failure to yield right of way

22. Crossing double solid line

23. Changing lanes unsafely

24. Making “U” turn in a prohibited area


(Hire A Driver in Minutes or Become A Driver)


25. Obstructing free flow of traffic

26. Driving with an expired licence.

27. Operating without a spare tyre

28. Driving on worn-out tyres

29. Driving without windscreen wiper

30. Failure to produce a certificate of insurance

31. Failure to obey police signals

32. Driving a vehicle that is not road worthy.

33. Failing to permit overtaking by another vehicle


Leave a Reply